In this article I discuss some objections (raised by J. Waldron, B. Fried, etc.) to "the entitlement theory of justice", launched by Robert Nozick in his Anarchy, state, and utopia (1974). Part one is about acquiring property, part two about the transfer of property, while part three debates the rectificatory justice. I basically find out that Nozick's solutions still hold, with some modest adjustments, as a basis for a modern free market economy. Concluding chapter is about some general features of Nozick's entitlement theory.
Key words: Robert Nozick, theory of justice, ownership, etitlement theory, free market.
ROBERT NOZICK'S THEORY OF JUSTICE
In this paper author analyzes some aspects of Robert Nozick's theory of justice. Starting from differentiating between the historical and end-state theories of distributive justice, he explores some of the key elements of Nozick's libertarian theory. Nozick develops his position by criticizing egalitarian premises of end-state and current time-slice theories in which the pattern of distribution of goods and services in the society is established. Therefore, Nozick argues, if any such pattern (egalitarian or not) is to be preserved arbitrary coercion over the people's lives contiously must be exercised. Author, in this connection, spells out Nozick's basic anti-distributionist standpoint by contrasting his entitlement theory with various forms of socialist distributive justice conception, pointing out advantages of Nozick's libertarian approach.
Key words: justice, redistribution, entitlement, original appropriation, liberalism.
WHITHER ANARCHY: HAS ROBERT NOZICK JUSTIFIED THE STATE?
The author contests Nozick's idea about overcoming anarchy with free cooperation and points to Nozick's failure to offer an argument against liberal anarchism.
Key words: anarchy, procedures, protective agency, damages.
Roy A. Childs, Jr.
THE INVISIBLE HAND STRIKES BACK
The author challenges Nozick's idea of creating a minimal state from an anarcho-capitalist natural state, with invisible hand, without violation of anyone's individual rights. The author believes that the invisible hand, if permitted to act unobstructed in the sphere of security services, would actually lead to the dismantling rather than the creation of the minimal state.
Key words : anarchy, state, invisible hand, individual's rights.
WHAT'S MORALLY SPECIAL ABOUT FREE EXCHANGE
The author challenges the liberal premises on the inviolability and moral primacy of private ownership and free exchange. He argues that ownership is never absolute and its definition is always subject to a degree of regulative limitation, compared with libertarian maximum principles.
Key words : private ownership, free exchange, system of prices, restriction.
ROBERT NOZICK'S LIBERTARIAN FRAMEWORK FOR UTOPIA
The author presents Nozick's basic political concepts, focusing on his theory of private ownership rights and justice, as the basis for the entire conception, as well as his revival of classic liberalism.
Key words : liberalism, ownership, utopia.
ROBERT NOZICK AND IMMACULATE CONCEPTION OF THE STATE
In this text, the author proposes that Nozick has failed to prove the possibility of creating a minimal state through the invisible hand process. A state is invariably created by violence over an individual and monopolizing of physical force on part of a protective agency. Instead of Nozick's minimal state as a monopolist protective agency the author supports free competition of several protective agencies to operate as private firms on the security services market.
Key words : anarchy, minimum state, protective agency, monopoly.
RAWLS'S THEORY OF JUSTICE
The author critically examines Rawls's understanding of justice. He refutes its liberal nature, since it insists on the difference principle, which implies redistribution conducive to the desired end-state. Rawls, in the author's view, ignores freedom, individual autonomy and private ownership rights, while affirming the violation of human rights through redistributive exploitation.
Key words : justice, end state, current-time slice, veil of ignorance, pattern.
INVISIBLE HAND EXPLANATION
The author, in this paper, applies the economic theory of invisible hand to a wider scope of issues, arguing that the theory may be used as a useful analytical concept in different other sciences like logic, biology, politics, sociology, etc.
Key words: invisible hand, economy, preferences, logic, game theory.
WHY DO INTELLECTUALS OPPOSE CAPITALISM
The author, in this article, looks into the reasons for disproportionate support of intellectuals to socialist ideas, finding them predominantly in the inherited thinking habits of hierarchical educational institutions, where one's status and reward depend on the knowledge of general intellectual concepts. By contrast, the reward on the market depends on the resourcefulness, entrepreneurial foresight, and often luck, all of which in the eyes of intellectuals creates a belief in the essential injustice of the free market system.
Key words : socialism, intellectuals, wordsmiths, justice.
DWORKIN ON THE INTEGRITY AND THE COMMUNAL DEMOCRACY
The aim of this article is a study of mutual connection between law as integrity and communal understanding of the democracy in Dworkin's theory. According to this theory, law as integrity allows the best interpretation of the political and legal practice of a particular political community. Certain importance of communal democracy lays in the law, conceived as the integrity and connected to it constitutionally defined order. The specific veight in a recent debates about constitutionally restricted democracies and potential deficiencies, has Dworkin's theory of communal democracy, vhich ideal is non-competitive partnership based on equal concern and respect of the each member of political community. In the tension between constitutional restrictions of the democratic decision-making and the civil participation in self-government, Dworkin highlights the first issue as a more important. Nevertheless, judicial reviev can not be done only by the experts; it has to integrate public deliberation about the basic principles of justice as well.
Keywords: integrity, democracy, communal democracy, law, community.
PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY IN DWORKIN'S POLITICAL PHILOSOPHY
Author examines Ronald Dworkin's theses as presented in Sovereign Virtue - The Theory and Practice of Equality. Dworkin tries to construct just model of social distribution, the one that would correspond to ideal of "equal treatment" of each individual. That model includes compensation for hendicaps that do not depend on individual will, but it also makes individual success dependent on decisions, labor and individual talents. Article estimates the most important reviews of Dworkin's thought ( by P. Berkowitz, K. A. Appiah, W. Kymlicka). In the conclusion author gives methodological objections on Dworkin's theory and on inconsistences in different phases of his scientific development.
Key words: justice, equality, equal treatment, political morality
REPEATED QUESTION: COULD ETHICAL STATEMENTS BE TRUE OR FALSE?
In this paper I have made an attempt to defend affirmative answer to the question from the headline. In meta-ethics this answer is not usual. In my opinion, that is due to common acceptance of positivistic methodology within meta-ethics. Concept of "is"-statements which could be absolutely and finally true has been of decisive influence in rejecting the possibility of ethical statements being true or false. Also, I have tried to show that questons of meaning and logic of moral speech are independent from our issue.
Key words : ethical statements, objective criterion, concept of truth, methodology
OBJECTIVITY AND TRUTH: YOU'D BETTER BELIEVE IT
Author argues in this paper that value judgements are objectively true. He diferentiates between the internal value skepticism and Archimedian value skepticism; while internal skepticism rejects one set of the moral principles and accepts the other, Archimedian skepticism rejects objectivity of any possible value judgement and develops meta-theory that exposes their subjectivity. Author denies Archimedian scepticism neutrality and austerity – it is not neutral since its basic distinction between the metastatments on value judgements and the very value judgements. Further, it is not austere because diversity of moral convictions is not good enough reason to dismiss universality of ethics on one hand, and there is no direct linkage between knowing certain ideal and its motivating force. In concluding remarks author discusses internal scepticism, which he holds for only relevant ethical standpoint.
Key words: skepticism, Archimedian skepticism, neutrality, austerity, objectivity.
YUGOSLAV RECURSIVE SECESSIONS IN LIGHT OF CONTEMPORARY SECCESION THEORIES
Yugoslav secessions are highly recursive: the secessions of Croatia and Slovenia from federal Yugoslavia were causally necessary for the secession of Bosnia-Hercegovina and Macedonia as well as of the Kosovo province; the secession of Croatia was causally necessary for the secession of the Republic of Serb Krajina from Croatia and of the Serb Republic from Bosnia-Hercegovina. In assessing secessions liberal theories use the right to the withdrawal of consent or the right to remedy wrongs; national self-determination theories, the right to national identity or national life; and hybrid theories both; accordingly, specific conditions for justifiable secession vary from theory to theory. These theories thus yield very different assessments of the Yugoslav secessions listed above: Birch's theory justifies all, Buchanan's none, whereas other theories fail to provide consistent criteria for the assessment of most. Only Beran's 'pure' liberal theory appears to offer a consistent set of criteria for the assessment of these secessions; it also suggests how some of the presently unjustifiable secessions may be rectified in accordance with liberal principles.
Key words: Secession, Yugoslavia, justification.
DEMOCRACY AND PROTECTORATE
(Example of Bosnia and Herzegovina)
Generally accepting Mill 's reservation regarding possibility of polyarchy (democracy) in ethnic complex regions author analyzes – within contex of dissolving of communist world and renaissance of nationalisms – recent historical events in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the emergence of that state and the present situation in it. In his analysis he consults leading theoretists in field of political thought. Assessing that this country has in ten years gone from "bolshevik totalitarism" to "colonial despotism", author rejects Knaus/Martin's claim that "foreigners in Bosnia develop democracy by means of dictatorship" and argues that this kind of thinking is basically wrong and potentially dangerous.
Key words: democracy, Bosnia and Herzegovina, nationalism, protectorate